Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the balances of a.k.a. Brands Holding Corp. and all of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates items subject to significant estimates and assumptions.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that subject the Company to credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash and accounts receivable. Although the Company’s deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of federal insurance provided on such deposits, the Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of a default by the financial institutions holding its cash and cash equivalents for the amounts reflected on the consolidated balance sheets.
As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had $21.7 million and $28.2 million, respectively, on deposit in banks outside of the United States.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity (at date of purchase) of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents, which consist primarily of money market accounts and restricted cash are carried at cost, which approximates fair value.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash primarily relates to letters of credit which are held as collateral under various lease agreements. Restricted cash is presented separately from cash and cash equivalents on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable consists of trade accounts receivable relating to the credit card receivables arising from the sale of products to customers through the Company’s digital platforms. Trade accounts receivable are reported net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company had no allowance for doubtful accounts as of December 31, 2022 and 2021.
Inventory, Net
Inventories consist of finished goods and are accounted for using an average cost method. Inventory is valued at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of inventory includes import duties and other taxes and transport and handling costs. The Company records a provision for excess and obsolete inventory to adjust the carrying value of inventory based on assumptions regarding future demand for the Company’s products.
Lower of cost or net realizable value is evaluated by considering obsolescence, excess levels of inventory, deterioration and other factors. The Company analyzes the quantity of inventory on hand, the quantity sold in the past year, the anticipated sales volume, the expected sales price and the cost of making the sale when evaluating the net realizable value of its inventory. If the sales volume or sales price of specific products declines, additional write-downs may be required. Excess and obsolete inventory is charged to cost of goods sold in the period the write-down is estimated.
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist primarily of advance payments on inventory to be delivered from vendors, prepaid packaging and insurance.
Deferred Offering Costs
Deferred offering costs consist primarily of legal, accounting and other fees related to the IPO which were recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets on the consolidated balance sheets prior to the IPO. After the completion of the IPO in September 2021, deferred offering costs of $7.7 million were reclassified to stockholders’ equity and recorded net against the proceeds from the IPO. No offering costs were deferred as of December 31, 2022 or 2021.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are recorded at cost, net of accumulated depreciation. Repair and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to ten years.
Estimated useful life (years)
Furniture and fixtures
5 - 10 years
Machinery and equipment
5 - 10 years
Computer equipment and capitalized software
3 - 5 years
Buildings and leasehold improvements Shorter of the lease term or the estimated life of the assets
Upon the sale or disposal of property and equipment, the cost and related accumulated depreciation and amortization are removed from the consolidated balance sheets and the resulting gain or loss is reflected in general and administrative expense in the consolidated statements of income. Property and equipment that is fully depreciated as of the last day of a fiscal year is written off during the first quarter of the following year. On January 1, 2022, the Company established a policy to classify all capitalized software, website design and software systems as property and equipment, resulting in a reclassification of such assets and related depreciation and amortization from intangible assets, net, to property and equipment, net.
The Company has incurred costs related to the development of the Company’s websites. The Company capitalizes these website development costs, as applicable, in accordance with ASC Subtopic 350-50, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Website Development Costs (“ASC 350-50”). ASC 350-50 requires that costs incurred during the website development stage be capitalized. Capitalized website costs include salary and benefit costs for Company employees and contractors that develop the website. When the development phase is substantially complete and the website is ready for its intended purpose, capitalized costs are depreciated using the straight-line method over the three-year useful life.
Business Combinations
The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method and accordingly, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any noncontrolling interest in the acquiree are recorded at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill is recorded as the difference, if any, between the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition and the fair value of the acquired net tangible and intangible assets. Goodwill recorded in an acquisition is assigned to applicable reporting units based on expected revenues or expected cash flows. Identifiable intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their useful lives. Amortization of intangible assets is recorded in general and administrative expense.
While the Company uses its best estimates and assumptions as a part of the determination of fair value to accurately value assets acquired, liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest on the business combination date, the Company’s estimates and assumptions are inherently subject to refinement. As a result, during the preliminary determination of fair value, which may be up to one year from the business combination date, the Company may record adjustments to the assets acquired or liabilities assumed subsequent to the completion of the determination of fair value in the Company’s operating results in the period in which the adjustments were determined.
Noncontrolling interest is part of the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition. It is measured at the minorities’ share of the fair value of the subsidiaries’ identifiable assets and liabilities at the date of acquisition by the Company, subject to possible adjustments for up to one year from the business combination date, and the minorities’ share of changes in equity since the date of acquisition.
The Company also incurs acquisition-related and other expenses including legal, banking, accounting and other advisory fees of third parties which are recorded as general and administrative expenses as incurred. The results of operations of acquired businesses are included in the consolidated financial statements from the acquisition date.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured at fair value as of the acquisition date. Goodwill, which has an indefinite useful life, represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net assets acquired, including the amount assigned to identifiable intangible assets. The primary drivers that generate goodwill are the value of synergies between the acquired entities and the Company and the acquired assembled workforce, neither of which qualifies as a separately identifiable intangible asset. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had goodwill of $167.7 million and $363.3 million, respectively.
Intangible assets, other than goodwill, acquired by the Company include brand names, customer relationships and trademarks. Intangible assets that are fully depreciated as of the last day of a fiscal year are written off during the first quarter of the following year. On January 1, 2022, the Company established a policy to classify all capitalized software, website design and software systems as property and equipment, resulting in a reclassification of such assets and related depreciation and amortization from intangible assets, net, to property and equipment, net. None of the Company’s intangible assets, other than goodwill, are indefinite lived.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets and Goodwill
The Company’s long-lived assets consist of intangible assets and property and equipment. The Company’s goodwill has an indefinite useful life.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually, in the fourth quarter and whenever changes in circumstances indicate an impairment may exist. The goodwill impairment test is performed at the reporting unit level, which is generally at the level of or one level below an operating segment. Generally, a qualitative assessment is first performed to determine whether a quantitative goodwill impairment test is necessary. If management determines, after performing an assessment based on the qualitative factors, that the fair value of the reporting unit is more likely than not less than the carrying amount, or that a fair value of the reporting unit substantially in the excess of the carrying amount cannot be assured, then a quantitative goodwill impairment test would be required. The quantitative test for goodwill impairment is performed by determining the fair value of the related reporting units. Fair value is measured based on the discounted cash flow method and relative market-based approaches. An impairment charge is recorded equal to any shortfall between the fair value of a reporting unit and its carrying value.
As part of the annual goodwill impairment test conducted in the fourth quarter of 2022, the Company concluded that the carrying value of the Company’s Culture Kings and Rebdolls reporting units exceeded their fair values and recorded a total non-cash goodwill impairment charge of $173.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. Refer to Note 6, “Goodwill,” for further information. No goodwill impairment was recorded for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
The Company reviews finite-lived intangible assets and property and equipment for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount may not be recoverable. This determination includes evaluation of factors such as future asset utilization and future net undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of the assets. If circumstances require a long-lived asset or asset group be tested for possible impairment, the Company first compares undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by that asset group to its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable on an undiscounted cash flow basis, an impairment is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount exceeds its fair value.
The Company’s identifiable intangible assets are typically comprised of customer relationships and brand names. The cost of identifiable assets with finite lives is generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the assets’ respective estimated useful lives, which range from four to ten years.
No impairment losses related to finite-lived intangible assets or property and equipment were recognized during the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
The Company generally leases office and warehouse facilities under non-cancellable agreements. Upon each agreement’s commencement date, the Company determines if the agreement is part of an arrangement that is or that contains a lease, determines the lease classification and recognizes right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for all leases with the exception of leases with terms of 12 months or less. The Company accounts for lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. Operating lease right-of-use assets are classified as long-term assets in the consolidated balance sheets. Operating lease liabilities are classified as current lease liabilities and long-term lease liabilities based on when lease payments are due. The Company’s lease payments consist primarily of fixed rental payments for the right to use the underlying leased assets over the lease terms as well as payments for common area maintenance and administrative services. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company did not have material finance lease arrangements.
Lease liabilities and their corresponding right-of-use assets are recorded based on the present value of lease payments over the expected term of the lease commencement date. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an estimated incremental borrowing rate (“IBR”) based on the information available at the commencement date of the respective lease to determine the present value of future payments. The determination of the IBR requires judgment and is primarily based on the Company’s uncollateralized borrowing rate, adjusted for the impact of collateralization, the lease term and other specific terms included in each lease arrangement. The IBR is determined at the lease commencement and is subsequently reassessed upon a modification to the lease arrangement. The right-of-use asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the commencement date and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred.
Lease expense for minimum lease payments on operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option.
The Company reviews right-of-use assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset may not be recoverable. When such events occur, the Company compares the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset to the undiscounted expected future cash flows related to the right-of-use asset. If the comparison indicates that an impairment exists, the amount of the impairment is calculated as the difference between the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the right-of-use asset. If a readily determinable market price does not exist, fair value is estimated using discounted expected cash flows attributable to the right-of-use asset.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and are recorded net on the face of the balance sheet. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent it is believed that these assets are more likely than not to be realized. In assessing the realizability of deferred tax assets, management considers whether it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which those temporary differences become deductible. Management considers the scheduled reversal of deferred tax liabilities (including the impact of available carry back and carry forward periods), projected future taxable income and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Based upon the level of historical taxable income and projections for future taxable income over the periods in which the deferred tax assets are deductible, management believes it is more likely than not that the Company will realize the benefits of these deductible differences, net of the valuation allowance. The amount of the deferred tax asset considered realizable, however, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carry forward period are reduced.
The Company classifies interest and penalties, if applicable, related to income tax liabilities as a component of income tax expense.
The Company uses a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals and litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the largest amount of tax benefit as the largest amount that is more likely than not to be realized upon settlement.
Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. As of December 31, 2022, there are no known uncertain tax positions.
Equity-based Compensation
Restricted Stock Units and Stock Options
The Company has granted equity-based awards in the form of restricted stock units and stock options to employees. Equity-based compensation expense related to these equity-based awards is recognized based on the fair value of the awards granted. We estimate the fair value of restricted stock unit awards granted based upon the closing price of our common stock on the grant date. We estimate the fair value of stock option awards granted using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the fair value of the underlying shares of our common stock, the risk-free interest rate, the expected volatility of the price of our common stock, the expected dividend yield of our common stock and the expected term of the equity award. The assumptions used to determine the fair value of the equity awards represent management’s best estimates. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. The related equity-based compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally three or four years. We account for forfeitures as they occur. If factors change and different assumptions are used, our equity-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future.
These assumptions and estimates are as follows:
Risk-Free Interest Rate. The risk-free interest rate for the expected term of the equity award is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of the grant.
Expected Volatility. Until we have sufficient trading history for our common stock, the expected volatility is estimated by taking the average historic stock price volatility for industry peers, consisting of several public companies in our industry which are either similar in size, stage of life cycle or financial leverage, over a period equivalent to the expected term of the awards.
Expected Dividend Yield. We have never declared or paid any cash dividends and do not currently plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, an expected dividend yield of zero percent is used.
Expected Term. For stock options, the expected term represents the period that a stock option award is expected to be outstanding. We have limited historical exercise data from which to derive expected term input assumptions. Consequently, we calculate expected term using the SEC simplified method whereby the expected term of a stock option award is equal to the average of the award's contractual term and vesting term.
We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the assumptions related to our equity-based compensation on a prospective basis.
Partnership Units Valuations
For the partnership units granted prior to IPO, the Company relied on valuations prepared by an independent third-party valuation firm in accordance with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Accounting and Valuation Guide, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation. Such valuations were aligned with the Company’s internal valuation approach. Subsequent to the IPO, it is no longer necessary for the Company to estimate the fair value of its partnership units, as no further incentive partnership unit awards will be granted. See Note 12, “Equity-based Compensation,” for additional information.
Employee Benefit Programs
The Company has a 401(k) defined contribution plan covering eligible employees. Participants may contribute a percentage of their pre-tax earnings annually, subject to limitations imposed by the Internal Revenue Service. The Company matches contributions, subject to Internal Revenue Service limitations, and contributions vest immediately.
The Company’s short-term obligations, which represent wages and salaries for vacation days earned, non-monetary benefits and accumulated sick leaves that are expected to settle wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service, are recognized in respect of employee services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are included in accrued liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Foreign Currencies
The functional currency for the Company and its United States and Cayman subsidiaries is the United States dollar, while the functional currency for the Company’s Australian subsidiaries is the Australian dollar. For those subsidiaries, the assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars at the exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date for assets and liabilities and an average rate for each period for revenues and expenses. Translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity.
Transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity involved give rise to foreign currency remeasurement gains and losses, which are included in other expense on the consolidated statements of income. Foreign currency transaction losses were $1.6 million, $1.7 million and $0.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is composed of two components: net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss). Other comprehensive income (loss) refers to revenue, expenses, gains and losses that under GAAP are recorded as an element of stockholders’ equity but are excluded from net income. The Company’s other comprehensive income (loss) consists of foreign currency translation adjustments from those subsidiaries not using the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. The Company has disclosed other comprehensive income (loss) as a component of stockholders’ equity.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is primarily derived from the sale of apparel merchandise through the Company’s online websites and stores and, when applicable, shipping revenue.
Revenue is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration expected to be received in exchange for products. To determine revenue recognition for contracts with customers in accordance with Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), the Company recognizes revenue from the commercial sales of products and contracts by applying the following five steps: (1) identification of the contract, or contracts, with the customer; (2) identification of the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determination of the transaction price; (4) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognition of revenue when, or as, the Company satisfies its performance obligation. A contract is created with the customer at the time the order is placed by the customer, which creates a single performance obligation. The Company recognizes revenue for its single performance obligation at the time control of the product passes to the customer, which is when the goods are transferred to a third-party common carrier, for purchases through the Company’s online websites, or at point of sale, for purchases in its stores. In addition, the Company has elected to treat shipping and handling as fulfillment activities and not a separate performance obligation.
Net sales from product sales includes shipping charged to the customer and is recorded net of taxes collected from customers, which are recorded in accrued liabilities and are remitted to governmental authorities. Cash discounts earned by the customers at the time of purchase and estimates for sales return allowances are deducted from gross revenue in determining net sales.
The Company generally provides refunds for goods returned within 30 to 45 days from the original purchase date. A returns reserve is recorded by the Company based on historical refund experience with a corresponding reduction of sales and cost of sales. The returns reserve was $4.0 million and $6.9 million as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The following table presents a summary of the Company’s sales return reserve:
December 31,
2022 2021
Beginning balance $ 6,887  $ 3,517 
Returns (101,716) (80,915)
Allowance 98,797  84,285 
Ending balance $ 3,968  $ 6,887 
The Company also sells gift cards and issues online credits in lieu of cash refunds or exchanges. Proceeds from the issuance of gift cards and online credits issued are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized as revenue when the gift cards or online credit are redeemed or upon inclusion in gift card and online credit breakage estimates. Breakage estimates are determined based on prior historical experience.
Revenue recognized in net sales on breakage of gift cards and online credit for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 was $0.2 million, $0.5 million and $0.7 million, respectively.
The following table presents the disaggregation of the Company’s net sales by geography, based on customer address:
Year Ended December 31,
2022 2021 2020
United States $ 312,977  $ 270,028  $ 125,179 
Australia 226,929  218,563  67,850 
Rest of world 71,832  73,600  22,887 
Total $ 611,738  $ 562,191  $ 215,916 
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists of the purchase price of merchandise sold to customers and includes import duties and other taxes, freight-in, defective merchandise returned from customers, inventory write-offs and other miscellaneous shrinkage.
Selling Expenses
Selling expenses consist of costs incurred in operating and staffing the fulfillment centers and stores, costs attributable to inspecting and warehousing inventory, picking, packaging and preparing customer orders for shipment, customer service, shipping and other transportation costs incurred in delivering merchandise to customers and customers returning merchandise, merchant processing fees and shipping supplies. The amount of shipping and handling costs included in selling expenses, inclusive of outbound shipping and returned freight costs, was $80.5 million, $70.7 million and $34.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Marketing expenses are expensed as incurred and consist primarily of targeted online performance marketing costs, such as display advertising, retargeting, paid search/product listing ads, affiliate marketing, paid social, search engine optimization, personalized email marketing, social media advertising and mobile “push” communications through the Company’s apps. Marketing expenses also include the Company’s spend on brand marketing channels, including cash compensation to influencers, events and other forms of online and offline marketing. Marketing expenses are primarily related to growing and retaining the customer base. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of payroll and related benefit costs and equity-based compensation expense for employees involved in general corporate functions, including merchandising, marketing and technology, and costs associated with the use by these functions of facilities and equipment, including depreciation, rent and other occupancy expenses, and amortization associated with the Company’s intangible assets, including acquired brand names, customer relationships and trademarks.
Other Expense, Net
Other expense, net, consists primarily of interest expense of $7.0 million, $9.5 million and $0.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, foreign currency losses of $1.6 million, $1.7 million and $0.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and $10.9 million of loss on extinguishment of debt for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated using net income attributable to common stockholders divided by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share reflects the dilutive effects of stock options and restricted stock units outstanding during the period, to the extent such securities would not be anti-dilutive, and is determined using the treasury stock method.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible. The Company determines fair value based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability in the principal or most advantageous market. The carrying amounts for the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, line of credit and accrued liabilities approximate fair value due to their short-term maturities. When considering market participant assumptions in fair value measurements, the following fair value hierarchy distinguishes between observable and unobservable inputs, which are categorized in one of the following levels:
Level 1 Inputs: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 Inputs: Other than quoted prices included in Level 1 inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full-term of the asset or liability.
Level 3 Inputs: Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available, thereby allowing for situations in which there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at measurement date.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company held cash in operating accounts as of December 31, 2022 and 2021.
Certain Risks and Concentrations
The Company is subject to certain risks, including dependence on third-party technology providers and hosting services for website servers, exposure to risks associated with online commerce security, credit card fraud, as well as the interpretation of state and local laws and regulations in regard to the collection and remittance of sales and use taxes. The Company does not have significant customer or vendor concentrations.
Segment Information
Operating segments are defined as components of an entity for which separate financial information is available and is regularly reviewed by the Chief Operating Decision Maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company has determined that its five brands are each an operating segment. The Company has aggregated its operating segments into one reportable segment based on the similar nature of products sold, production, merchandising and distribution processes involved, target customers and economic characteristics.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This standard simplifies the accounting for income taxes by eliminating certain exceptions to the guidance in Topic 740 related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The guidance also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill and the allocation of consolidated income taxes to separate financial statements of entities not subject to income tax. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2022, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (ASC 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. The pronouncement and amendments help limit the accounting impact from contract modifications, including hedging relationships, due to the transition from the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) to alternative reference rates that are completed by December 31, 2022. The Company adopted this ASU on December 31, 2022, and the adoption did not have a material impact on its financial results, financial position or cash flows from the transition from LIBOR to alternative reference interest rates.